Marketing Mix Free Download 2024 is a dynamic field. The external factors like the country’s political situation, Government policies, rate of inflation, competitors, advancement in technology, and even global changes effect the market situation. The organization cannot control these external factors. The internal factors are controllable factors. These four factors are product, price, Place (distribution setup), and promotion. These four factors are in the control of the marketing companies and easily are using in response to the changing situation to achieve the marketing goal.
Threfor PRODUCT, PRICE, PLACE, AND PROMOTION are the MARKETING MIX.As per the definition by Philip Kotler the set of controllable variables that the firm can use to influence the buyer’s response . These above-mentioned variables(factors) can be controlled as per the situationas is the marketing mix.According to Some authors, there are seven controllable factors in a marketing mix Product, Price, Place, Promotion, People, Packing,and process.
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Free Marketing 2024 involves a number of activities. To begin with, an organization may decide on its target group of customers to be served. Once the target group is decided, the product is to be placed in the market by providing the appropriate product, price, distribution, and promotional efforts. These four factors, Price,place,and distribution when used by the suitable combination as per the situation help to achieve the company’s marketing goal. Let us discuss the above-mentioned four Ps in detail.
PRODUCT Anything offered by the company to satisfy the need of the ultimate users is a product.It can be tangible (can be seen touch like cloth food etc.) and intangible like services (transport, education, internet, etc.)
William J. Stanton is saying that “Product is a set of tangible and intangible attributes including packaging, color, price, manufacturer’s prestige, retailer’s prestige and manufacturer’s and retailer’s services which buyer may accept as offering the satisfaction of wants and services”in a broader sense a product is more than a physical product of its features, color, manufacturer, and retailer good well, brand name, Packaging accessories, installation, after-sales service fulfills some psychological needs and the assurances that service facilities will be available to meet the customer needs after the purchase”
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Products can be classified on the basis of use, durability, and tangibilityBased on use there are consumer products and industrial products or goods. Consumer goods or products are household products like Coffee, tea rice sugar clothes shoes, which are for personal consumption.On the basis of buying behavior, consumer goods can be classified further into three groups 1-Convenience goods 2-Shopping goods 3- Specialty goods.
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- Convenience goods- These products are frequently used in our daily life not much more information or research is required to purchase the products because these products are quickly consumed. like Matchbox, Bath soap, and spices. Vegetable cooking oil etc
- Shopping goods –These products are slowly consumed and before going to purchase the customer tries to collect information about the product features like quality,style, suitability, durability price, substitute,and competition before going to have a purchase decision. These products are more expensive as compared to convenience goods. Examples are clothes, shoes, washing machines,etc.
- Specialty goods-Because of some special feature of products (maybe status symbol) of certain categories of goods people some effort into buying these products with little attention to price They are ready to buy these goods at the offered prices and also put in extra time to locate the seller to make the purchase. Examples are status symbol products, cameras, Laptops, new automobiles,etc.
Industrial Goods: Those Goods are used to produce some other products for further usage. These may consist of machinery, raw materials, machinery spare parts, and operating supplies (such as lubricants, stationery,etc.). As the buyers of industrial goods are knowledgeable, cost-conscious, and rational in their purchase, therefore, marketers adopt different pricing, distribution, and promotional strategies for their sales.
- On the basis of Durability, the products can be classified as :
Durable Goods;Durable goods are products which are using for a long period i.e., for months or years together. Examples of such goods are refrigerators, cars, washing machines, etc. Such goods generally require more personal selling efforts and have high-profit margins. In the case of these goods, the seller’s reputation and pre-sale and after-sale service are important factors in the purchase decision.
Non-durable Goods. Non-durable goods are products that are normally consuming for the shortes length of time. Examples of such products are soap,washing powder, salt, pickles, sauce, etc. These items are consuming quickly and we purchase these goods more often. Such items are generally make available through a large number of convenient retail outlets. Profit margins on such items are usually low and heavy advertising is doing to attract people towards their trial and use.
- Based on tangibility, the products can be classified as
(a) Tangible Goods- Most goods, whether these are consumer goods or industrial goods and whether these are durable or non-durable, falls in this category as they have a physical form, we can touch and see them. Thus, all items like groceries, cars, raw materials, machinery, etc. fall in this category.
(b) Intangible Goods. Services are essentially intangible activities that provide want or need satisfaction to individual consumers or to organizational buyers (industrial, commercial, institutional, government, etc.) … Medical treatment, postal, banking, and insurance services, internet, education transportation, etc., all fall in this intangible goods category.
PRICING AND FACTORS AFFECTING PRICING DECISIONS Price is an exchange value of goods and services in the form of money. Pricing is another important element of marketing mix and it plays a vital role in the success of a product in the market.The marketer considers the factors when theu are deciding the price of a product discuss as follows:
Cost: No business can survive without covering the cost of production and distribution. In a large number of products, the retail prices are determing by adding a reasonable profit margin to the cost. The higher the cost, the higher is likely to be the price, lower the cost lower the price.Marketers try their best to keep the cost low because the high price has a very adverse effect on sales volume.Higher price lowers the sales volume resulting in low profit
Demand: Demand also affects the price of a product. When there is a limited supply of a product and the demand is high, people are willing to buy the product even at higher prices. However, how high much the price a customer is willing to pay in this context, price elasticity, i.e., changes in price in response to demand is a considering factor .
Competition: The price of the competitor’s product is an important factor to detrminine the price especially in a highly competitive market.If increase the price, then competitor’s product attract the customers and if company is lowering the price then there is the fear of a price war in the market.
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Marketing Objectives: A firm may have different marketing objectives like survival, profit, return on investment increase in sale volume, or market share. For example, if the company wants to increase the sale volume in a highly competitive environment, then the company should reduce the price of the product and if the company has an objective to gain or maintain the status Que of a product then the price of the product will be higher than the competitors and adopt some other marketing strategies to achieve the objective
Government Regulation: Prices of some essential products are regulating by the government under the Essential Commodities Act. For example, in some countries,the Government authorties are controlling the price of electricity, oil, and gas . Therefore, it is essential that the existing statutory limits, if any, are also in view while determining the prices of products.
METHODS OF PRICE FIXATION Methods of fixing the price are broadly dividing into the following categories.
- Cost-based pricing In this method thecompany is fixiing price of one unit of a product by adding the amount of the desired profit margin in the cost of the product. The added amount is markup. For example, the total cost of manufacturing of 1000 Android mobile is 100000 $ then the unit cost of one mobile is 100$ and if the company wants to markup 25% then the price of one mobile is 125$.
- Competition-based pricing. Competition-Based Pricing The company ignores its cost and market demand. It uses competitors’ prices as a guideline in setting it’s the price of its own product. This kind of method is very important in a highly competitive market. In such kind of market price plays an important role in the marketing mix.
- Demand-based pricing= prices are determing by the demand for the product. Under this method, without paying much attention to cost and competitors’ prices, the marketers try to forecast the demand for the product. If the demand is high, they decide to take advantage and chargea high price. If the demand is low, they fix low prices for their product. By accurate estimation of demand, a marketer can get the advantage of demand base pricing
DISTRIBUTION(Place)Another important role of the marketing mix is to make availability of the product throughout the whole country. It is the task of the marketing department to make the availability of product throughout the whole country by proper distribution (Place) system.
Distribution channel is a group of individuals and organizations that direct the flow of products from manufacturers to customers/consumers.In other words, it provides a link between the manufacturers and the ultimate consumer sometimes are using the help of a middle man depending upon the nature of the product.
Primarily a channel of distribution performs the following main functions of Free Marketing:
1- It helps in establishing regular contact with the customers. And provides them with the necessary information relating to the product.
2- It helpsthe customer to inspect the product at his convenience to make his choice.
3- It facilitates the transfer of ownership as well as the delivery of goods.
4- It helps in financing by giving credit facilities.
5- It helps to provideafter-sales services, if necessary.
TYPES OF CHANNELS OF DISTRIBUTION Of Free Marketing:
- Zero stage channel of distribution =It involves direct sales from manufacturer to consumer without involving the middleman. It is true for Industrial goods because the customer is knowledgeable and his purchases are at large scale. Door-to-door sales by company salesman is another example of this stage channel of distribution.
- One-stage channel of distribution=In this case one middleman involved is the retailer. Manufacturer appoints a number of retailers on large scales like in shopping malls. Usually durable consumer products like refrigerators,Air conditioners, washing machines, irons, etc.
- Two stage channel of distribution= This is the most commonly using channel of distribution. In this case, there are two middlemen namely the wholesaler and the retailer. This is applicable to products where markets are spreading over a large area. The value of individual purchases is small and the frequency of purchase is high.
- Theee stage channel of distribution= It consists of the Manufacturer →Agent →Wholesaler → Retailer → Consumers
- Factor affecting choice of distribution channel: – Nature of market – Nature of product – Nature of the company – Middlemen consideration
PROMOTION- Promotion is a process of communicating information and motivating prospective customers to purchase the product offered by the company. The main objective of promotion is to divert the attention of customers to the product. Remind the customes,create their interest in the product and its availability. How the features of this product make it superior to its competitors to satisfy their needs.
A firm uses different tools for its promotional activities which are as follows: –
Advertising – This is the most frequently are useing to inform the present. And expected customers about product features, availability, price, etc. It motivate the customers to purchase. It is a paid form of non-personal communication through different media. For exempel newspapers, magazines, billboards , radio, television, Facebook, internet, etc. It is a comparatively low-cost tool for promotion.
Publicity – It is a non-paid way of communication. It is using and trying to create a favorable image in the public about an organization, product, or idea. For exempel articles in a newspaper, press conference, debate on a TV program, etc.
Personal selling –Hired sales representatives of the company to motivate, and convince the customers to purchase the product. For example, Sales representative of industrial goods. Medical representative of a pharmaceutical company.
Sales promotion This refers to short-term and temporary incentives to purchase or trial of new product. The tool includes free samples, contests, games, gifts, trade shows, discounts, etc. Usually the companies are using the Sales promotional activities at retail levels.
These above discussed are also promotion mix.